Nine studies had inclusion criteria that required a minimal horseracing gambling frequency of one to three times per week. These bettors gambled on average four to five days per week. Two studies did not specify gambling frequency but indicated that participants gambled at least once per week Ladouceur et al. Six studies out of 22 Two presented money spent per session of horseracing betting. Two studies presented data for money spent gambling, though without specifying data exclusively for horseraces.
Another study indicated that The last study on cognitions indicated that compared to non-gamblers, horseracing bettors agreed more with the statements that when a loss is incurred, the odds of winning increase, and that a game strategy for gambling can be beneficial Chevalier et al.
Two publications attempted to distinguish the parts of chance and skill involved in horseracing betting. The first reported that gamblers made significantly more accurate predictions than a random selection, but there was no significant difference for financial returns due to the structure of the game Ladouceur et al.
The second suggested that it was possible to become an expert in horseracing betting and become better than horseracing officials Rosecrance, This interpretation was based on the subjective personal experience of the author, observations of professional gamblers and interviews with professional gamblers. In the 12 studies involving SEB, the number of participants varied from 16 to 47, Eleven studies Seven studies One study indicated that SEB gambled on average 4.
Three studies did not report data for average gambling frequency for SEB and other gambling activities, but indicated that One of these three studies revealed that Three observations could be made regarding the gambling habits of approximately 50, online SEB. Finally, one study was conducted with SEB in treatment and reported general data relating to their gambling habits. Four studies In the first, results indicated that in comparison to non-gamblers, SEB agreed more with the statements that after a series of losses, the odds of winning increase, and that a game strategy in gambling can be useful Chevalier et al.
In the second, The last study was carried out with hockey bettors. Among these gamblers, Most of these participants indicated relying on recent sports results to prepare their bets Cantinotti et al. Three studies discussed the parts of chance and skill involved in sports events betting. The influence of experience on the accuracy of sports results was assessed in two studies.
Results indicated that experienced gamblers performed significantly better than chance in making accurate predictions. A study carried out with SEB that bet regularly on hockey indicated that they made significantly more accurate predictions that a random selection. However, there was no significant difference for financial gains between SEB selections and random selections Cantinotti et al. The sample of SEB obtained investment returns of Data on gambling habits were not available.
Compared to non-gamblers, gamblers considered that skill had more impact than chance on sports pool bets. The authors asked participants to identify the components of skill and chance in the game. This study did not present data on the distinction between chance and skill inherent to gambling, but suggested that some players were better than others.
Table 2 presents the evaluation of the selection bias, the quality of the data collection methods used, and the significance of the rating. For the selection bias, eight studies obtained a strong score, 10 a moderate score, and 13 a weak score. For the data collection methods, 18 studies obtained a strong score, two a moderate score, and 11 a weak score.
This systematic review is the first to focus specifically on gambling habits and cognitions of sports bettors. Likewise, it is the only review that gathers empirical data regarding the roles of chance and skill in sports betting.
The first aim of this paper was to determine gambling habits of sports bettors, namely the type of sports betting, gambling frequency and money spent. Over two thirds of the studies retained for this review focused on horseracing bettors, and only one concerned pool bettors. This overrepresentation of studies on horseracing bettors in comparison to other types of sports bettors may be explained by its popularity over time, though it appears to have decreased in the past decade European Gaming and Betting Association, Although interest in SEB seems recent, this sports betting activity is rising rapidly in popularity.
It is estimated that profits brought in by SEB will increase from 58 billion US dollars in to 70 billion in Hing et al. This illustrates the increasing popularity of SEB, which may be explained by the increased accessibility offered with Internet and mobile technology and, in turn, may motivate researchers to further study SEB in the future. Concerning sports pool betting, the rarity of studies on this topic could be due to the fact that it is not regulated by gambling laws.
Indeed, many pool bets were made between friends or colleagues rather than through official sports betting platforms. Regarding gambling frequency, both horseracing bettors and SEB gambled many times per week. This high frequency may be explained by inclusion criteria of the retained studies, of which half required participants who gambled at least once a week.
Thus, the conclusions of these studies with frequent gamblers cannot be generalized to occasional gamblers. Overall, information on gambling frequency and money spent presented in the retained studies indicated that they exceeded the threshold of low risk gambling proposed by Currie and collaborators Considering this, the seemingly excessive gambling habits of sports bettors as observed in this review may be the result of an overrepresentation of gamblers with problematic gambling behaviours in the samples.
Indeed, one in four studies in this review had participants who were probable pathological gamblers or frequent gamblers i. The second aim was to identify beliefs held by sports bettors. Findings were similar for all types of sports bettors i.
Although only 11 studies focused on this topic, they all reported that bettors had thoughts that minimize the role of chance in favour of skill on the outcome of the game. For example, some gamblers believed that accumulating information on past statistics or bets would give them an advantage to make a profitable bet. The third aim was to explore how studies distinguished the roles of chance and skill in sports betting. The results converge toward the same conclusion for horseracing bettors and SEB: most of the studies indicated that personal skill enabled gamblers to make more accurate unique predictions.
However, most sports betting games are structured in a way that requires gamblers to combine several accurate predictions in order to win money. When gamblers have to combine these predictions, they do not perform better i. Hence, the belief that sports literacy increases odds of winning in sports betting may reinforce illusions of control Cantinotti et al. However, the authors indicated that the use of a self-report measure and an underrepresentation of gamblers with a negative balance of gains may have influenced their results.
Likewise, it is impossible to determine the erroneous nature of certain thoughts relative to skill held by sports bettors. These thoughts may however encourage gamblers to adopt problematic gambling behaviours in the hope that their personal skills may help them control the outcome of the game.
A limitation of this review lies in the quantity of studies conducted that allowed to answer the research questions. In addition, only five studies addressed the distinction between chance and skill in sports betting.
The conclusions of this study must be interpreted carefully in light of this limitation. A second limitation that warrants careful interpretation of the results concerns the variation in methodological quality of the retained studies. Sports betting has seldom been studied and no randomized controlled studies seem to have been conducted. Consequently, this review is mainly constituted of cross-sectional studies with potential biases.
However, the inclusion of these studies regardless of their methodological quality allows for a wider and richer perspective on research that has been conducted on this topic so far. This review is the first to address the specific characteristics of sports bettors, namely their gambling habits and cognitions.
It is also the first to assess available data on the roles of chance and skill involved in sports betting. Finally, the scientific rigor employed during the selection and data extraction processes constitutes a strength of this study. It is essential to continue research on gambling cognitions as a risk factor in order to determine their impact on gambling habits of sports bettors. However, this particularity could complicate the task of therapists as they generally work with erroneous thoughts Ladouceur et al.
From a clinical standpoint, counsellors could emphasize financial consequences related to gambling rather than focusing therapeutic work on erroneous thoughts. Gamblers may be more inclined to observe the objective financial consequences of their gambling behaviours rather than recognize the erroneous nature of their thoughts due to the ambiguity that subsists regarding the part of skill involved in sports betting.
A longitudinal design would be necessary to verify if there are helpful abilities in sports betting. The first step would be to identify gamblers with a positive return over investment ROI and extract their characteristics i. The second step would be to follow these players over time to see if they can maintain a positive ROI, and to compare the characteristics of players who keep a positive ROI with that of players who do not.
Finally, future studies could address pool and fantasy league bettors in order to acquire further knowledge on their specific characteristics. The structure of sports pools is different from that of horseracing and SEB, namely due to the single investment that it requires at the beginning of a season and the months it takes before finding out the results that determine whether the bet is a winning or losing one.
It is possible that thoughts and consequences related to gambling in sports pools differ from those seen in horseracing betting or SEB, but few studies have addressed these elements. Abbott, M. Gambling and problem gambling in Sweden: Changes between and Journal of Gambling Studies, 30 , American Psychiatric Association.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Author. Andersson, P. Forecasting outcomes of the World Cup in football: Performance and confidence of bettors and laypeople. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10 , Arcan, K. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31 , Bjerg, O. Problem gambling in poker: Money, rationality and control in a skill-based social game. International Gambling Studies, 10 , Blaszczynski, A.
A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97 , Bonnaire, C. Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: Comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25 , Braverman, J. A taxometric analysis of actual Internet sports gambling behavior. Psychological Assessment, 23 , Broda, A.
Virtual harm reduction efforts for internet gambling: Effects of deposit limits on actual Internet sports gambling behavior. Harm Reduction Journal , 5. Canadian Partnership for Responsible Gambling. Canadian gambling digest Cantinotti, M. Sports betting: Can gamblers beat randomness? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 , Chantal, Y. Skill versus luck: A motivational analysis of gambling involvement.
Journal of Gambling Studies, 12 , Motivation and gambling involvement. The Journal of Social Psychology, , Chevalier, S. Cocco, N. Differences in preferred level of arousal in two sub-groups of problem gamblers: A preliminary report. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11 , Currie, S. Risk of harm among gamblers in the general population as a function of level of participation in gambling activities. Addiction, , Coventry, K. Arousal, sensation seeking and frequency of gambling in off-course horse racing bettors.
British Journal of Psychology, 88 , Cunningham, J. Relating severity of gambling to cognitive distortions in a representative sample of problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Issues, 29 , Explaining the performance of online sports bettors.
International Gambling Studies, 13 , Dufour, M. Are poker players all the same? Latent class analysis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31 , — Sport Betting: Commercial and Integrity Issues. Ferris, J. Fortune, E.
Cognitive distortions as a component and treatment focus of pathological gambling: A review. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26 , — Franco, C. Cue reactivity to gambling stimuli Doctoral dissertation. Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers. Global Betting and Gaming Consultants Global sports betting: The state of play.
Griffiths, M. The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling. British Journal of Psychology, 85 , Bienvenido a NHL. He published a book in April called "Dejoue par le cancer", which had a preface written by former Quebec Nordique Peter Stastny. He also published a second book called "Raconte-moi les Nordiques. He was born in Montreal on December 14, and started out at the Montreal-Matin in where he contributed to coverage of the Montreal Canadiens.
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The Legault government has already announced that these restrictions should be lifted as of May 18 almost everywhere, except in northern Quebec and on the Lower North Shore. Several observations from police sources on the ground tend to show that business has been slowing down for all of organized crime in Quebec for two months. In addition, the Hells involved with the Italian mafia in illegal sports betting lose millions of dollars every month, in Quebec and Ontario, since the pandemic has forced the suspension of the activities of almost all professional sports leagues in the world.
On April 23, the Hells were also dismissed by the Supreme Court of Canada in their last appeal to annul the state confiscation of their Sherbrooke bunker. Make sure you have subscribed to our Facebook page to stay tuned! Source: Le Journal de Quebec. The crown corporation insisted that they are turning to foreign employees to reduce costs and improve on already existing live games.
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